May 12, 2023

What Do Solar Energy Efficiency And Output Depend On And How Can They Be Improved?

Are you interested in investing in solar energy, but unsure about the production and operation of solar panels? You’re not alone. It can be challenging to find clear and straightforward information on the subject but look no further. This guide provides answers to all your questions about the performance of photovoltaic, thermal, and hybrid solar panels.

Whether you’re curious about the production process or the technical details of how solar panels work, we’ve got you covered. Our goal is to provide you with a comprehensive understanding of solar panels so that you can make an informed decision about investing in this sustainable energy source. So, sit back, relax, and let us guide you through the world of solar energy.

Understanding The Basics Of Solar Panel Production And Output

If you’re interested in investing in solar energy, it’s important to understand the workings of solar panels, particularly their production and solar panel output. To begin, we need to delve into the photoelectric effect, which was first discovered by Alexandre Edmond Becquerel in 1839. Essentially, this effect occurs when certain materials emit electrons upon being struck by light.

Photovoltaic cells use the photoelectric effect to directly convert sunlight into electricity. These cells are typically made from silicon, a readily available material, but other materials like gallium arsenide, CdTe, and CIGS are also used. A typical solar panel comprises 60 to 62 of these cells connected in series, meaning their voltages are added together to provide the panel's total voltage output.

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Photovoltaic cells are semiconductors. This means they have properties in between conductors and insulators. When light shines on a solar cell, it creates electron-hole pairs that allow the flow of electricity. Additionally, the conductivity of some semiconductors can be altered by applying voltage. This property is utilized in the design and operation of solar cells.

Solar panels generate electricity by utilizing the photoelectric effect. When sunlight hits a solar cell, photons (particles of light) are absorbed by the silicon material, causing electrons to jump to a higher energy level within the same layer. This creates "holes" where the electrons were previously located.

The solar cell is designed with a p-n junction, a region where the electrical properties of the silicon are slightly altered. This junction creates an electric field that acts like a wind, pushing the excited electrons and the "holes" in opposite directions.

- Electrons flow towards the n-type region with an excess of electrons.
- "Holes" move towards the p-type region with a deficit of electrons.

This separation of positive and negative charges creates a voltage difference between the two sides of the cell. When connected to an external circuit, the electrons flow through the circuit, generating a direct current (DC) electricity that can be used to power devices.

While temperature can slightly decrease the efficiency of solar panels, they still function effectively within a range of operating temperatures.

What Is kWH?

A kWh (kilowatt-hour) is a unit of energy commonly used to measure the amount of energy consumed or produced over time. The “kW” in kWh refers to power, which is the rate at which energy is generated or used. Power is measured in watts (W) and is named after James Watt, a significant contributor to the steam engine technology.

To understand the difference between power and energy, imagine a faucet: the kW (kilowatt) could be compared to the flow of water from the tap, while the kWh would be the total amount of water that could be collected in a container in one hour with that flow.

It’s important to note that a solar installation rated at 100 kW of power will not necessarily produce 100 kWh of energy in one hour since it may not work continuously. The kWh is a measure of energy consumed or produced over time, whereas kW refers to the rate at which energy is generated or used. Understanding the difference between these two units is essential for calculating energy balances and evaluating the performance of energy-producing systems.

The Electrical Power Of A Photovoltaic Solar Panel

Photovoltaic solar panels are rated in Watt Peak (Wp), which indicates their maximum power output under specific conditions. This rating depends on factors like the number and quality of cells used in the panel.

The current standard rating for Wp is around 300, but it's crucial to remember that thi based on Standard Test Conditions (STC) including a temperature of 25°C, a specific level of sunlight intensity, a specific tilt angle, and a clear sky.

Therefore, the Wp rating provides an estimate of a panel's maximum theoretical capacity, not the guaranteed output. Several factors, including location, weather conditions, and installation specifics, can affect the actual energy production, which is typically measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh).

Furthermore, solar panel efficiency typically decreases as temperature increases, meaning the output might be lower on hot days compared to the Wp rating. As technology advances, panels are becoming more powerful and efficient, offering increasing potential for energy generation

Solar Thermal: How Does It Work?

Solar thermal energy uses a different process than solar photovoltaic energy. Instead of utilizing the photoelectric effect, solar thermal technology collects and accumulates the heat of the sun using sensors and a thermal conducting.

Solar thermal panels typically have a higher efficiency, generally around 80%. This translates to them capturing a larger percentage of the sun's energy and converting it into usable heat for applications like water heating.

solar thermal panel

Photovoltaic efficiency, on the other hand, varies depending on the type of panel used. Most commercially available crystalline silicon panels, which constitute the vast majority of solar installations today, typically have efficiencies ranging from 15% to 22%. This means they convert a smaller portion of the sun's energy into electricity compared to solar thermal panels.

While solar thermal technology boasts higher efficiency, it's crucial to remember that photovoltaic panels offer the benefit of generating electricity, which can be used for a wider range of applications. Additionally, ongoing research and development efforts continue to improve the efficiency of both solar thermal and photovoltaic technologies.

Thermal Power Of A Solar Thermal Panel

Solar thermal panel power is measured in Watts and its efficiency is expressed in W per m2. Therefore, it is recommended to consider the amount of thermal capture area installed when estimating the power of solar thermal panels. The greater the panel surface area, the more energy it can produce. The decision on the surface area to be installed depends on your specific requirements. For instance, if you want to use solar thermal energy for your water heater, home heating, or both, the required area will differ.

The Quality Of The Solar Panels

Solar panel certifications play a crucial role in ensuring quality, safety, and compliance with industry standards. They help build consumer trust and offer several benefits, including:

- Guaranteeing electrical safety and a minimum level of efficiency (e.g., IEC certification).

- Ensuring compliance with various quality standards like durability, performance, and environmental impact (e.g., Solar Keymark certification).

- Potentially enabling access to state aid or incentive programs that may require specific certifications for solar panel installations.

For example, DualSun holds both IEC and Solar Keymark certifications, demonstrating their commitment to quality and adherence to relevant standards.

Choosing certified solar panels from reputable manufacturers helps mitigate the risk of purchasing defective or non-compliant products that could pose safety hazards or fail to meet your expectations. Certifications contribute to a stable and reliable solar industry and empower consumers to make informed choices.

Types Of Solar Panels

When it comes to installing solar panels, understanding the different types available can be a daunting task. To make things easier, we have outlined the main types of solar panels below: 

Photovoltaic Panels: Types And Efficiency

Photovoltaic panels, which use a photoelectric process to generate electricity, are the most popular type of solar panels. The silicon based solar cells used in most of these panels can be classified into different types, each with varying efficiencies.

Monocrystalline silicon panels are the most efficient type, typically achieving efficiencies between 18% and 24%. They are also the most expensive option due to the careful process involved in creating the single-crystal structure. These panels currently hold the largest market share among the three types mentioned.

Polycrystalline silicon panels are made from a more common form of silicon and offer slightly lower efficiency, typically ranging between 14% and 18%. They represent a good balance between cost and performance for many applications.

Amorphous silicon panels are the most affordable option but have the lowest efficiency, typically ranging from 5% to 7%. Due to their thin and flexible nature, they are sometimes used in building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) where aesthetics and flexibility are significant factors.

Choosing the right type of solar panel depends on several factors, including cost and the available space for installation.

Flexible Solar Panels

Some of the features of flexible solar panels are:

1. Made from thin-film materials like copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) or thin-film silicon.

2. Produced using roll-to-roll printing techniques, making them cheaper than traditional panels.

3. Have a lower efficiency range of 5-15% compared to traditional panels (15-22%).

4. Commonly used in portable power sources like solar chargers and solar carpets, on roofs with complex shapes, and for integration into clothing or wearable devices.
5. Silicon-based flexible panels exist, but their higher cost and similar efficiency to traditional panels limit their use to specific applications where flexibility and portability are crucial.


Perovskite solar cells are a recently developed technology with the potential to revolutionize the solar industry. They are composed of hybrid materials, often including lead, tin, or other metals combined with organic or inorganic components.

Promise and Challenges:

1. Perovskite cells showcase promising laboratory efficiencies close to high-performance silicon panels, raising hopes for future improvements and cost reductions.

2. Their potential versatility opens doors to exploring applications beyond traditional rooftop installations. However, their durability and long-term stability for uses like windows or building integration require further research and development before widespread adoption.

Current Limitations:

While research explores the possibility of perovskite cells utilizing artificial light, their primary function remains converting sunlight into electricity. They are not currently at a stage to efficiently "recycle" lighting energy.

Overall, perovskite solar cells are a promising technology, but they are still under development, and it's essential to stay updated about their potential capabilities and limitations.

Thermal Solar Panel

Solar thermal panels, unlike their photovoltaic counterparts, focus on capturing solar energy to heat water rather than generating electricity. These systems utilize several components:

Glass tubes: Each tube houses an absorber (typically a dark material) that captures solar radiation and an exchanger that transfers the collected heat to the system. The tubes are vacuum-sealed to minimize heat loss, contributing to their high energy transfer efficiency of around 75%.

Heat transfer fluid: A corrosion-resistant fluid with low viscosity, high specific heat capacity, and ability to withstand extreme temperatures is crucial for efficient heat transfer. Water or a water-antifreeze mixture (e.g., propylene glycol) is commonly used and circulates through channels formed by the tubes.

Collector types: Solar thermal technology encompasses various collector designs, but the two most common are:

1. Evacuated tube collectors (ETC): These feature double-walled tubes to create a vacuum insulation and offer higher efficiency, making them suitable for colder climates.

2. Flat plate collectors (FPC): These are less expensive but have lower efficiency and are typically used for pool heating or in warmer regions.

What Does Solar Energy Efficiency And Output Depend On And How Can It Be Improved?

The performance of your solar panels is influenced by several key factors:

1. Sunlight Availability:

Location: Depending on your region, the amount of sunlight reaching your panels will differ. For example, in France, southern regions like Corsica have a higher solar energy production capacity compared to the north.

Microclimates: Even within regions, local variations in weather patterns and topography can affect sunlight exposure.

Seasons and Day/Night Cycles: Naturally, the amount of sunlight reaching your panels will vary throughout the year and throughout the day.

2. Temperature:

Optimal Temperature: Solar panels perform best at temperatures around 25°C (77°F).

Impact of Higher Temperatures: Surprisingly, temperatures above 25°C can decrease efficiency, with each degree above this limit potentially decreasing efficiency by 0.5%.

Hybrid Panel Potential: Hybrid panels with a thermal exchange system are under development and may offer improved efficiency in hot environments by maintaining lower panel temperatures. However, their widespread availability is still limited.

3. Other Factors:

Shading: Shadows from trees, buildings, or other structures can noticeably reduce solar panel output.

Orientation and Tilt: The direction your panels face (ideally south in the Northern Hemisphere) and the angle they are tilted at can significantly impact how much sunlight they capture. The type of solar panel used and the energy needs of the household or building must be considered when determining the ideal orientation and inclination. Working with a solar installation professional can help ensure the optimal setup for your solar panels.

Overall, understanding these factors can help improve solar energy efficiency and output, making solar energy an even more viable option for homeowners and businesses alike.

Maintaining Solar Panels: Tips For Improving Efficiency And Output

Solar panels are generally low-maintenance due to their weatherproof design and ability to self-clean to a certain extent through natural rainfall. However, for optimal performance, regular maintenance is still recommended:

Annual Cleaning: An annual cleaning with gentle methods, such as rinsing with soft water jets or using soft brushes, is advisable to remove accumulated dust, dirt, or debris. Avoid using harsh chemicals or abrasive materials that could scratch the panel surface.

Seasonal Considerations: Depending on your location and environmental factors, more frequent cleaning might be necessary during specific seasons, especially if there's an abundance of pollen, dust storms, or other contaminants that can significantly impact efficiency.

Professional Assistance: For high-rise buildings or installations with difficult access, it's crucial to consider professional cleaning services to ensure safety and proper procedures are followed.

By understanding these maintenance recommendations, you can ensure your solar panels operate at their peak efficiency and maximize your energy production throughout the year.

maintaining solar panels tips for improving solar panel efficiency and output

Shades And Shadow Influences

The presence of shadows on solar panels, regardless of the source, can significantly reduce their energy output. Common culprits include:

Nearby objects: Trees, chimneys, powerlines, and even nearby buildings can cast shadows on your panels, especially during certain times of the day and throughout the year as the sun's position changes.

Distant objects: Even shadows from mountains or tall buildings located at a distance can affect your system's performance, particularly if they fall on the panels during peak sunlight hours.

The severity of the impact depends on several factors:

Size and shape of the shadow: A larger shadow will obviously have a more significant impact compared to a smaller one.

Duration of the shadow: The longer the shadow falls on the panel, the greater the energy loss.

Panel orientation and tilt: Panels facing directly towards the sun and tilted at an optimal angle will be less susceptible to shading compared to those positioned non-ideally.

Here are some ways to mitigate the impact of shadows:

Analyze potential shade patterns throughout the year: Before installing your solar panels, carefully analyze the potential for shadows throughout the day and year to ensure optimal placement.

Trim or remove nearby trees: This might be an option if the shadow source is manageable and allows for responsible tree maintenance.

Consider alternative placements: If shade cannot be avoided at the intended location, explore alternative options where panels receive minimal or no shading throughout the day.

By understanding the impact of shadows and taking steps to minimize their influence, you can maximize the performance and efficiency of your solar energy system.

Panel Orientation And Inclination

Orientation and inclination (or tilt angle) are crucial factors in determining the efficiency of solar panels. By optimizing these factors during installation, you can maximize the amount of sunlight they receive, leading to increased energy production. Here's a further breakdown of their importance:

1. Orientation:

Northern Hemisphere: In the Northern Hemisphere, solar panels should ideally face south as this ensures they receive the most direct sunlight throughout the day.

Southern Hemisphere: In the Southern Hemisphere, the ideal orientation is north.East or West facing panels: While not ideal, panels facing east or west can still generate electricity, but their efficiency will be lower.

2. Inclination:

Matching Latitude: The optimal tilt angle for a solar panel installation is generally close to the geographical latitude of your location. This ensures the panels are angled directly towards the sun at its highest point in the sky during the year.

Adjusting for Seasonality: While the latitude provides a good starting point, minor adjustments may be considered for optimizing performance during specific seasons depending on your energy needs.

Here's why these factors are crucial:

Sun's path: The sun's path throughout the day and year varies depending on your location. Optimal orientation and tilt ensure the panels receive the most direct sunlight exposure at peak hours, maximizing energy generation.

Seasonal variations: By considering the seasonal trajectory of the sun, slight adjustments to the tilt angle can optimize energy production during specific periods when your energy needs might be higher.

Additional considerations:

Local regulations: Some locations might have specific regulations or guidelines for solar panel installation, including restrictions on orientation and tilt angle. It's crucial to comply with local regulations during the planning and installation process.

Shading: As mentioned previously, avoiding shadows from trees, buildings, or other structures is also crucial for optimizing solar panel performance.

By considering these aspects when planning your solar installation, you can ensure your panels are positioned to capture the most sunlight and operate at their peak efficiency, maximizing your investment in renewable energy.

Impact Of Temperature

While many may assume that higher temperatures are beneficial to solar panel efficiency, the opposite is true. Above 25°C, the efficiency of a solar panel decreases by 0.5% for every degree. Hybrid solar panels, equipped with a thermal exchanger, maintain a lower temperature which improves their efficiency.

In conclusion, while solar panels require little maintenance, it’s important to keep in mind the factors that can affect their performance. Regular cleaning, considering shadows, and proper installation can ensure maximum efficiency and output from your solar panels.

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